Introduction to computer hardware pdf
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Umar Haruna. What Is a Computer? A Computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules, produce results, and stores the results for future use.
In other words, a computer can generally be defined as an electronic device that does computation and makes logical decisions according to instructions and data that have been given to it. Data can be defined as a collection of unprocessed items or files, which can take the form of; text, numbers, images, audio, and video.
Information can also be defined as processed or refined data items which conveys meaning and is useful to people. Many daily activities either involve the use of or depend on information from a computer.
Basic Computer Hardware Tutorial
Information Processing Cycle Computers process data input into information output. Computers carry out processes using instructions, which are the steps that tell the computer how to perform a particular task. A collection of related instructions organized for a common purpose is referred to as Software. A computer often holds data, information, and instructions in storage for future use.
Some people refer to the series of input, process, output, and storage activities as the Information Processing Cycle. As a result, communications also has become an essential element of the information processing cycle. What could take a man some hours to accomplish may take a computer a few seconds. Computers designed and built in the 80s are still functioning today.
The computer does not require human supervision to function. Every imaginable profession and business now uses it. It is incapable of thought, lacks initiative and cannot react to unforeseen unprogrammed events.
With the right criteria. It will carry out a deadly function accurately.Computer Awareness is tested in almost every exam. One of the oft seen topics in Computers is Hardware. Basic Computer Hardware questions are easy to remember and can count for easy marks. Download as PDF for revision later. Every part of your computer is the result of years of research and development.
Parts that were once hand made at a cost of thousands of man-hours are now mass produced for a fraction of a rupee. Computer parts can be divided into two groups, hardware and software. Hardware is any part of the computer that you can touch.How to Build a Gaming PC (2018)
The seeming miles of wires that get tangled on your desk, the CD drive, the monitor are all hardware. Software is a set of electronic instructions consisting of complex codes Programs that make the computer perform tasks. Windows is a software, so is any other program that runs on your computer. While there are thousands of parts even in the smallest computers that make up its hardware, you are not required to know them all. You only need to know about basic computer hardware.
The CPU is considered the brain of the computer. It performs all types of data processing operations, stores data, intermediate results and instructions program.
It controls the operation of all parts of computer. A CPU has 3 components as listed below. Think of the ALU as the logical part of the brain. The ALU thinks in bits i. It is made up of a group of memory locations built directly into the CPU called registers. These are used to hold the data binary information that are being processed by the current instruction.Hardware refers to the physical elements of a computer. This is also sometime called the machinery or the equipment of the computer.
Examples of hardware in a computer are the keyboard, the monitor, the mouse and the central processing unit. However, most of a computer's hardware cannot be seen; in other words, it is not an external element of the computer, but rather an internal one, surrounded by the computer's casing tower.
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A computer's hardware is comprised of many different parts, but perhaps the most important of these is the motherboard. The motherboard is made up of even more parts that power and control the computer. In contrast to software, hardware is a physical entity.
Hardware and software are interconnected, without software, the hardware of a computer would have no function. However, without the creation of hardware to perform tasks directed by software via the central processing unit, software would be useless.
Hardware is limited to specifically designed tasks that are, taken independently, very simple. Software implements algorithms problem solutions that allow the computer to complete much more complex tasks. For example, a program that is designed for the Windows operating system will only work for that specific operating system.
Compatibility of software will vary as the design of the software and the operating system differ. Software is capable of performing many tasks, as opposed to hardware which can only perform mechanical tasks that they are designed for. Software provides the means for accomplishing many different tasks with the same basic hardware. Practical computer systems divide software systems into two major classes:. Software is generally created written in a high-level programming language, one that is more or less readable by people.
These high-level instructions are converted into "machine language" instructions, represented in binary code, before the hardware can "run the code".
When you install software, it is generally already in this machine language, binary, form. Firmware is a very specific, low-level program for the hardware that allows it to accomplish some specific task.
Firmware programs are relatively permanent, i. From the higher-level view of software, firmware is just part of the hardware, although it provides some functionality beyond that of simple hardware. Firmware is part of devices or device components such as a video card, sound card, disk drive and even the motherboard.
Introduction to Computers Hardware and Software [ src ]. Hardware Hardware refers to the physical elements of a computer.
Software Softwarecommonly known as programs or apps, consists of all the instructions that tell the hardware how to perform a task. Practical computer systems divide software systems into two major classes: System software: Helps run the computer hardware and computer system itself.
System software includes operating systems, device drivers, diagnostic tools and more. System software is almost always pre-installed on your computer. Application software: Allows users to accomplish one or more tasks. It includes word processing, web browsing and almost any other task for which you might install software.
Some application software is pre-installed on most computer systems. System software on right. Applications on left. More system and application software is indicated in the tray at the bottom. By Paul Mullins: screenshot Diagrammatic view of a very simple decision algorithm that could be programmed public domain image.This course is the first of a series that aims to prepare you for a role as an entry-level IT Support Specialist. I enjoy this course and highly recommend it to students with now prior experience in the IT area.
I also recommend this course to students who are returning to the IT area and need a freshener course.
Basic Computer Hardware Notes in PDF
Amazing introductory course, well structured and well presented with exercises and hands on labs. If you're looking to learn the fundamentals of computing, this is a great place to start your journey.
In the second week of this course, we'll learn about what's inside a computer. We'll learn all about the hardware components or different pieces inside a computer. We'll discover what each component does and how they work together to make a computer function.
By the end of this module, you will also know how to build a computer from scratch! Loupe Copy. Introduction to Computer Hardware.
Technical Support Fundamentals. Enroll for Free. This Course Video Transcript. Module Introduction Introduction to Computer Hardware Programs and Hardware Joe Diversity Taught By. Try the Course for Free. Explore our Catalog Join for free and get personalized recommendations, updates and offers. Get Started. All rights reserved.Being a modern-day kid you must have used, seen, or read about computers.
This is because they are an integral part of our everyday existence. Be it school, banks, shops, railway stations, hospital or your own home, computers are present everywhere, making our work easier and faster for us. As they are such integral parts of our lives, we must know what they are and how they function.
Let us start with defining the term computer formally. The literal meaning of computer is a device that can calculate.
However, modern computers can do a lot more than calculate. Computer is an electronic device that receives input, stores or processes the input as per user instructions and provides output in desired format.
Raw facts and figures which can be processed using arithmetic and logical operations to obtain information are called data. All devices or parts of computer interact through the control unit. Memory is of two types — primary memory and secondary memory. Primary memory resides within the CPU whereas secondary memory is external to it. Control unit, arithmetic logic unit and memory are together called the central processing unit or CPU.
Computer devices like keyboard, mouse, printer, etc. The set of instructions or programs that make the computer function using these hardware parts are called software. We cannot see or touch software. Both hardware and software are necessary for working of a computer. Errors that may occur are usually due to inaccurate data, wrong instructions or bug in chips — all human errors.
If you can input the necessary data with correct instructions, computer will do the processing. Also, data is safe from normal wear and tear associated with paper.
Computers can take up routine tasks while releasing human resource for more intelligent functions. Computers have no intelligence; they follow the instructions blindly without considering the outcome.
Regular electric supply is necessary to make computers work, which could prove difficult everywhere especially in developing nations. Starting a computer or a computer-embedded device is called booting. BIOS is a firmwarei. If a system is already running but needs to be restarted, it is called rebooting. Rebooting may be required if a software or hardware has been installed or system is unusually slow.
The next step in cold booting is loading of BIOS. Warm booting is faster than cold booting because BIOS is not reloaded. Basics of Computers - Introduction Advertisements. Previous Page. Next Page. Previous Page Print Page. Dashboard Logout.This pdf tutorial aims to give students who have had little or no contact with computers the foundation for all work using a computer. The concepts presented here are very general.
These are global concepts that make a computer. Students who are already accustomed to computer work can skim this section quickly, because it will be for them a review. This section should help students who are not familiar with the basic concepts to understand the rest of this document.
Take advantage of this course called Basic Computer course book download to improve your Others skills and better understand computer basic. This course is adapted to your level as well as all computer basic pdf courses to better enrich your knowledge. All you need to do is download the training document, open it and start learning computer basic for free. This tutorial has been prepared for the beginners to help them understand basic computer basic Others.
After completing this tutorial you will find yourself at a moderate level of expertise in computer basic from where you can take yourself to next levels. This tutorial is designed for computer basic students who are completely unaware of computer basic concepts but they have basic understanding on Others training. Home Computer tutorials.As you may already know, we can divide the logic of a machine into two parts: hardware and software. Let's first see the hardware.
This section is just an overview of the different parts: This course gives a more formal and detailed description of the various components of a computer.
This chapter does not explain the internal workings of the pieces, but rather describes their roles and relationships. It is the most important piece in a computer.
Basics of Computers - Introduction
It is the electronic chip that is the brain of your machine. When a computer is running a program, the processor is responsible for reading each instruction one after the other and performing what is requested. Memory is the second most important component in a computer. When programs are executed, they are first loaded into memory for processing. In addition, when you edit a text, it is located in the memory at the time of editing.
In short, each task performed on a computer must temporarily store information in memory. The hard drive is where the unused data and programs are stored. Unlike RAM, disk data is permanently recorded unless severe hardware failure occurs. This is a real advantage over RAM. Unfortunately, the technology used for hard disks mechanical does not allow access as fast as RAM electronic. That's why hard drives are not as expensive as RAM.
The hard disks of today are measured in terms of gigabytes. They are part of what are called input devices. The word peripheral means devices that are around the central machine, that is, around the processor and memory. To this word, the input word is added which means that the device is used to input data into the machine input peripheral.
Of course, there are also output peripherals for outputting data from the machine eg screen, printer. The keyboard and mouse, in particular, expect data from you. It is with these tools that you can communicate with the computer to ask it to run your programs and your daily tasks. For those who are real beginners, the keyboard is located in front of you with these many keys. Each key has a symbol printed on it - like a typing keyboard. The mouse is located next to it.
It is the device that usually has two or three buttons and is located on a small mat. Take advantage of this course called Basic Computer Hardware Tutorial to improve your Computer architecture skills and better understand Computer. This course is adapted to your level as well as all Computer pdf courses to better enrich your knowledge. All you need to do is download the training document, open it and start learning Computer for free.
This tutorial has been prepared for the beginners to help them understand basic Computer Computer architecture. After completing this tutorial you will find yourself at a moderate level of expertise in Computer from where you can take yourself to next levels.
This tutorial is designed for Computer students who are completely unaware of Computer concepts but they have basic understanding on Computer architecture training. Preview Download. Home Computer tutorials.